Purpose: Designed as a measure of Type A behavior and coronary prone behavior.
Population: Employed adults ages 25-65.
Scores: Type A, speed and impatience, job involvement, hard-driving and competitive.
Time: (20-30) minutes.
Authors: C. David Jenkins, Stephen Zyzanski, and Ray Rosenmen.
Publisher: The Psychological Corporation.
Description: The Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS) was developed in an attempt to duplicate the clinical assessment of the Type A behavior pattern by employing an objective psychometric procedure. Individuals displaying a Type A behavior pattern are characterized by extremes of competitiveness, striving for achievement and personal recognition, aggressiveness, haste, impatience, explosiveness and loudness in speech, characteristics which the JAS attempts to measure.
Scoring: The JAS is a self-administered, multiple-choice questionnaire that yields a composite Type A scale score and three factor analytically-derived subscales: Speed and impatience, Job involvement, and Hard-driving and competitive. The Type A scale consists of 21 items, while Speed and impatience (Factor S), Job involvement (Factor J) and Hard-driving and competitive (Factor H) contain 21, 24, and 20 items respectively.
Reliability: Reliability estimates for the JAS Type A scale appear to be adequate. Estimates of item reliabilities derived from squared multiple correlation coefficients range from .27 to .75, with the coefficient for the Type A scale reported to be .85. Test-retest reliability estimates generally range between .60 and .70 for retest intervals of from six months to four years. However, most of the correlations are based upon significant modifications in the items in later versions of the JAS.
Validity: Concurrent Validity has been established by comparing JAS scores to Type A ratings based upon the structured interview. Despite a statistically significant association between the two measures, as many as 30% of respondents are classified differently by the JAS and interview, and correlations between the JAS and interview in younger populations (e.g., college students) are less than .50. Evidence for the predictive validity of the JAS comes primarily from the prospective findings of the Western Collaborative Group Study. Analysis of JAS Type A scores of 2,750 healthy men showed the Type A scale to distinguish the 120 future clinical cases of coronary heart disease from those men who subsequently remained healthy. Numerous studies have also found patients with coronary heart disease to score higher on the JAS Type A scale than patients without heart disease.
Norms: The norms cannot be considered representative of any population of broad general interest. The standardization sample did not include women, young or elderly, or persons with low socioeconomic status.
Suggested Uses: Although the JAS is currently the most widely
used instrument to assess Type A behavior, evidence indicates that the
JAS should be limited to experimental or clinical research.